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Optical Properties & Electronic Structure

van der Waals - London Dispersion Interactions & Hamaker Coefficients

Computational Optics & Light Scattering

Lithography Materials

Optical Properties and Electronic Structure

K. van Benthem, C. Elsässer, R. H. French, “Bulk Electronic Structure of SrTiO3: Experiment and Theory”, Journal of Applied Physics, 90, 12, 6156-64, (2001).
K. van Benthem, R. H. French, W. Sigle C. Elsasser, M. Rühle, “Valence Electron Energy Loss Study of Fe Doped SrTiO3 and a S13 Boundary: Electronic Structure and Dispersion Forces”, Ultramicroscopy, 86, 3-4, 303-18, (2001). 
J. R. Smith, R. H. French, G. Duscher, D. A. Bonnell, “Consequence of Composition/Property Variations at Multiple Length Scales to Macroscopic Properties of CrOCN Thin Films”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 84, 12, 2873-81, (2001). 
H. Müllejans, R. H. French, “Insights Into the Electronic Structure of Ceramics Through Quantitative Analysis of Valence Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy (VEELS)”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 6 (4), 297-306, (2000). 
R. H. French, D. J. Jones, H. Müllejans, S. Loughin, A. D. Dorneich, P. F. Carcia "Optical Properties of Aluminum Nitride: Determined from Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry", Journal of Materials Research, 14, 4337-44, (1999).
A. D. Dorneich, R. H. French, H. Müllejans, S. Loughin, M. Rühle, “Quantitative Analysis of Valence Electron Energy-Loss Spectra of Aluminum Nitride”, Journal of Microscopy, 191, 3, 286-96 (1998).
R. H. French, H. Müllejans, D. J. Jones, "Optical Properties of Aluminum Oxide: Determined from Vacuum Ultraviolet and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopies", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 81, 10, 2549-57, (1998).
R. H. French, H. Müllejans, D. J. Jones, G. Duscher, R. M. Cannon, M. Rühle, “Dispersion Forces and Hamaker Constants for Intergranular Film in Silicon Nitride from Spatially Resolved-Valence Electron Energy Loss Spectrum Imaging”, Acta Materialia, 46, 7, 2271-87 (1998). 
S. Loughin, R. H. French, L. K. DeNoyer, W. -Y. Ching, Y. -N. Xu, "Critical Point Analysis of the Interband Transition Strength of Electrons", Journal of Physics D, 29 1740-50 (1996). H. Müllejans,
R. H. French, "Interband Electronic Structure of a Near S11 Grain Boundary in µ Alumina Determined by Spatially Resolved Valence Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy”, Journal of Physics D, 29, 1751-60 (1996). 
S. -D. Mo, W. Y. Ching, R. H. French, “Optical Properties of a Near S11 a-axis Tilt Grain Boundary in a-Al2O3 ” Journal of Physics D, 29, 1761-66 (1996). 
W. Y. Ching, Y.-N. Xu, R. H. French, "First-Principles Investigation of the Optical Properties of Poly(di-n-hexylsilane)", Physical Review B, 54, 19, 13546-50, (1996). 
R. H. French, S. J. Glass, F. S. Ohuchi, Y.-N Xu, F. Zandiehnadem, W. Y. Ching, "Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Three Phases of ZrO2 ", Physical Review B, 49, 5133-42, (1994).
S. Loughin, R. H. French, W. Y. Ching, Y. N. Xu, G. A. Slack, "Electronic Structure of Aluminum Nitride: Theory and Experiment", Applied Physics Letters, 63, 9, 1182-4, (1993). 

Y. N. Xu, W. Y. Ching, R. H. French, "Electronic Structure and Interatomic Bonding of beta-BaB2O4 Crystal with Comparison to LiB3O5", Physical Review B., 48, 17695-702, (1993). 
F. M. Schellenberg, R. L. Byer, R. H. French, R. D. Miller, "Vacuum-ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Dialkyl Polysilanes", Phys. Rev. B Rapid Communications, 43, 12, 10008-11, (1991). 
R. H. French, J. W. Lin, F. S. Ohuchi, C. T. Chen, "Electronic Structure of beta-BaB2O4 and LiB3O5 Nonlinear Optical Crystals, Phys. Rev. B., 44, 16, 8496-502, (1991). 
M. E. Innocenzi, R. T. Swimm, M. Bass, R. H. French, M. R. Kokta, "Optical Absorption in Undoped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet", Journal of Applied Physics, 68, 3, 1200-4 (1990).
M. E. Innocenzi, R. T. Swimm, M. Bass, R. H. French, A. B. Villaverde, M. R. Kokta, "Room Temperature Optical Absorption in Undoped a-Al2O3", Journal of Applied Physics, 67, 12,7542-46 (1990). 
M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, "Optical Reflectivity Measurements Using a Laser Plasma Light Source" Applied Physics Letters, 55, 19, 1955-7 (Nov. 8, 1989). 
M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, "Quantitative, FFT-Based, Kramers Kronig Analysis for Reflectance Data", Applied Spectroscopy, 43, 8, 1498-1501 (1989). 
F. S. Ohuchi, R. H. French, R. V. Kasowski, "Cu Deposition on Alumina and Aluminum Nitride Surfaces: Electronic Structure and Bonding", Journal of Applied Physics, 62, 6, 2286-89 (1987). 
F. A. Modine, C. Y. Allison, R. H. French, "Optical and Electrical Properties of Niobium Carbide", Phys. Rev. B, 35, 6, 2573-82 (1987). 

 

Electrodynamics

van der Waals - London Dispersion Interactions & Hamaker Coefficients

R. H. French, V. A. Parsegian, et al., “Long Range Interactions In Nanoscale Science”, Reviews Of Modern Physics, 82, 2, 1887-1944, (2010).

R. Rajter, R. H. French, “van der Waals-London Dispersion Interaction Framework for Experimentally Realistic Carbon Nanotube Systems”, Int. J. Mat. Res., 10,1, 27-42, (2010). 

A. Siber, R. Rajter, R. H. French, W. Y. Ching, A. Parsegian R. Podgornik, “Dispersion interactions between Optically Anisotropic Cylinders at all Separations: Retardation Effects for Insulating and Semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes”, Physical Review B, 80, 165414 (2009).  

R. Rajter, R. H. French, R. Podgornik, W. Y. Ching, V. A. Parsegian, “Spectral Mixing Formulations for van der Waals – London Dispersion Interactions Between Multi-Component Carbon Nanotubes”, Journal Of Applied Physics, 104, 053513-1-13, (2008).

R. Rajter, R. Podgornik, V. A Parsegian, R. H. French, W. Y. Ching, “van der Waals - London Dispersion Interactions for Optically Anisotropic Cylinders: Metallic and Semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes”, Physical Review B., 76, 045417 (2007). 

R. H. French, K. I. Winey, M. K. Yang, W. Qiu, “Optical Properties, Electronic Structure and Dispersion Interactions of Polystyrene”, Australian Journal of Chemistry,60, 251-63, (2007).

R. F. Rajter, R. H. French, W. Y. Ching, W. C. Carter, Y. M. Chiang, “Calculating van der Waals - London Dispersion Spectra and Hamaker Coefficients of Carbon Nanotubes in Water from ab initio Optical Properties”, Journal of Applied Physics, 101, 054303, p. 1-5, (2007)

K. van Benthem , G. Tan, R. H. French, L. K. Denoyer, R. Podgornik, V. A. Parsegian, “Graded Interface Models For More Accurate Determination of van der-Waals – London Dispersion Interactions Across Grain Boundaries”, Physical Review B, 74, 205110, p. 1-12, (2006). 

R. Podgornik, R. H. French, V.A. Parsegian, “Non-additivity in Van der Waals Interactions Within Multilayers”, Journal of Chemical Physics, 124, 044709, p. 1-9, (2006). 

S. C. Fain, Jr, C. A. Polwarth, S. L. Tait, C. T. Campbell, R. H. French, “Simulated Measurement of Small Metal Clusters by Frequency-Modulation Non-Contact Atomic Force Microscopy (ncAFM)”, Nanotechnology17, S121–S127, (2006). 

G. L. Tan, R. H. French, “Optical Properties, Electronic Structure and London Dispersion Interactions For Nanostructured Interfacial and Surficial Films”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 422, 136-46, (2006). 

G. L. Tan, M. F. Lemon, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, “Optical properties and London Dispersion Forces of Amorphous and Crystalline Silica Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Spectroscopy Ellipsometry”, Physical Review B, 72, 205117, p. 1-10, (2005). 

K. van Benthem, G. L. Tan, L. K. Denoyer, R. H. French, M. Rühle, “Local Optical Properties, Electron Densities and London Dispersion Energies of Atomically Structured Grain Boundaries”  Physical Review Letters, 93, 227201, p. 1-4, (2004). 

G. L. Tan, M. F. Lemon, R. H. French, “Optical Properties and London Dispersion Forces of Amorphous Silica Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 86, 11, 1885-92, (2003). 

K. van Benthem, R. H. French, W. Sigle C. Elsässer, M. Rühle, “Valence Electron Energy Loss Study of Fe Doped SrTiO3 and a S13 Boundary: Electronic Structure and Dispersion Forces”, Ultramicroscopy, 86, 3-4, 303-18, (2001)

R. H. French, “Origins and Applications of London Dispersion Forces and Hamaker Constants in Ceramics”, Centennial Feature Article, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 83, 9, 2117-46 (2000)
R. H. French, H. Müllejans, D. J. Jones, G. Duscher, R. M. Cannon, M. Rühle, “Dispersion Forces and Hamaker Constants for Intergranular Film in Silicon Nitride from Spatially Resolved-Valence Electron Energy Loss Spectrum Imaging”, Acta Materialia, 46, 7, 2271-87 (1998).
H. D. Ackler, R. H. French, Y. M. Chiang, "Comparison of Hamaker Constants for Ceramic Systems with Intervening Vacuum or Water: From Force Laws and Physical Properties", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 179, 460-69, (1996).
C. Argento, R. H. French, "Parametric Tip Model and Force-Distance Relation for Hamaker Constant Determination from AFM", Journal of Applied Physics, 80, 6081-90 (1996). 
R. H. French, R.. M. Cannon, L. K. DeNoyer, Y.-M. Chiang, "Full Spectral Calculation of Non-Retarded Hamaker Constants for Ceramic Systems from Interband Transition Strengths", Solid State Ionics, 75, 13-33, (1995).

 

Computational Optics & Light Scattering

bullet L. E. McNeil, A.R. Hanuska and R.H. French, “Orientation dependence in near-field scattering from TiO2 particles” Applied Optics, 40, 22, 3726-36, (2001).
bullet L.E. McNeil, R.H. French, “Light Scattering From Red Pigment Particles:  Multiple Scattering in a Strongly Absorbing System”, Journal of Applied Physics, 89, 1, 283-93, (2001).
bullet L.E. McNeil, A.R. Hanuska, R. H. French, “Near-field scattering from red pigment particles:  absorption and spectral dependence”,Journal of Applied Physics, 89, 1, 283-93, (2001). 
bullet L. E. McNeil, R. H. French, “Multiple scattering from Rutile TiO2 Particles”, Acta Materialia, 48, 4571-6, (2000). 
bullet E. S. Thiele, R. H. French, "Light-Scattering Properties of Representative, Morphological Rutile Titania Particles Using a Finite-Element Method", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 81, 3, 469-79, (1998).
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Lithography Materials

R. H. French, H. V. Tran, “Immersion Lithography: Photomask and Wafer-Level Materials”, Vol. on “Materials Advances for Next-Generation Microelectronics”, Annual Reviews Of Materials Research,  39,  93-126 (2009). or full text html link

Immersion Fluids

M. K. Yang, S. G. Kaplan, R. H. French, J. H. Burnett, “Index of Refraction of High Index Lithographic Immersion Fluids and its Variability”, Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS and MOEMS, 8(2), 023005, (2009).

H. V. Tran, E. Hendrickx, R. H. French, D. J. Adelman, N. S. Rogado, M. Kaku, M. Mocella, J. J.  Schmieg, C. Y. Chen, F. Van Roey, A. S. Bernfeld, R. A. Derryberry, “High Refractive Index Fluid Evaluations at 193 nm: Fluid Lifetime and Fluid/Resist Interaction Studies”, Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 21 (5), 631-9 (2008).

H. V. Tran, R. H. French, D. J. Adelman, J. Feldman, W. Qiu, R. C. Wheland, L. W. Brubaker, B. E. Fischel, B. B. Fones, M. F.  Lemon, M. K.  Yang, O. Nagao, M. Kaku, M. Mocella, and J. J.  Schmieg, “Evaluation of Next Generation Fluids for ArF Immersion Lithography Beyond Water", Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 20, 5, 729-38, (2007). 

R. H. French, H. Sewell, M. K. Yang , S. Peng, D. McCafferty, W. Qiu, R. C. Wheland, M. F. Lemon, L. Markoya, M. K. Crawford, “Imaging Of 32-nm 1:1 Lines And Spaces Using 193-nm Immersion Interference Lithography With Second-Generation Immersion Fluids To Achieve A Numerical Aperture Of 1.5 And A k1 Of 0.25”, Journal of Microlithography, Microfabrication and Microsystems, Topical Issue on Hyper-NA Imaging, 4(3), 031103-1-14, (2005). 

R. R, Kunz., M. Switkes, R. Sinta, J. E. Curtin, R. H. French, R. C. Wheland, C. C. Kao, M. P. Mawn, L. Lin, P. Wetmore, V. Krukonis, K. Willams, “Transparent Fluids for 157 nm Immersion Lithography”,  Journal of Microlithography, Microfabrication, and Microsystems, 3, 1, 73-83, (2004). 

Pellicles and Photoresist

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, E. W. Tokarsky, “Optical Properties of Teflon® AF Amorphous Fluoropolymers”, Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS and MOEMS, 7, 3, 033010, 1-9, (2008).

A. E. Feiring, M. K. Crawford, W. B. Farnham,  J. Feldman,  R. H. French,  C. P. Junk, K. W. Leffew, V. A. Petrov, W. Qiu, F. L. Schadt III, H. V. Tran, F. C. Zumsteg, “New Amorphous Fluoropolymers of Tetrafluoroethylene with Fluorinated and Non-Fluorinated Tricyclononenes.  Semiconductor Photoresists for Imaging at 157 and 193 nm”, Macromolecules, 39, 3252-61, (2006). 

A. E. Feiring, M. K. Crawford, W. B. Farnham, R. H. French, K. W. Leffew, V. A. Petrov, F. L. Schadt III, H. V. Tran, F. C. Zumsteg, “Bis(fluoroalcohol) Monomers and Polymers: Improved Transparency Fluoropolymer Photoresists for Semiconductor Manufacture at 157 nm”, Macromolecules.  39 (4), 1443 -1448, (2006).   

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  Roger H. French, Robert C. Wheland, Weiming Qiu, M. F. Lemon, Edward Zhang, Joseph Gordon, Viacheslav A. Petrov, Victor F. Cherstkov, Nina I.Delaygina, “Novel Hydrofluorocarbon Polymers for use as Pellicles in 157 nm Semiconductor Photolithography”, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 122, 63-80, 2003 

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A. E. Feiring, J. Feldman, F. L. Schadt III, K. W. Leffew, F. C. Zumsteg, M. K. Crawford, R. H. French. R. C. Wheland, V. A. Petrov, W. B. Farnham, “Design of Very Transparent Fluoropolymer Resists for Semiconductor Manufacture at 157 nm” Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 122, 11-16, (2003).

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Roger H. French, Robert C. Wheland, Weiming Qiu, M. F. Lemon, Edward Zhang, Joseph Gordon, Vlad Liberman, Andrew Grenville, Rod Kunz, Mordechai Rothschild, “157nm Pellicles: Polymer Design for Transparency and Lifetime”, Optical Microlithography XV, SPIE 4691, 57, (2002).  

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V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, A. Grenville, R. H. French, “Behavior of Candidate Organic Pellicle Materials Under 157-nm Laser Irradiation”, Optical Microlithography XV, SPIE 4691, 56, (2002). 

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Roger H. French, Jerald Feldman, Fredrick C. Zumsteg, Michael K. Crawford, Andrew E. Feiring, Joseph Gordon, Viacheslav A. Petrov, Frank L. Schadt III, Robert C. Wheland, Edward Zhang, “Progress in Materials Development for 157nm Photolithography: Photoresists and Pellicles”, Semiconductor Fabtech,  ICG Publishing Ltd., London, Edition 14, 167-75, July 2001. 

bullet Roger H. French, Joseph Gordon, David J. Jones, M. F. Lemon, Robert C. Wheland, Edward Zhang, Fredrick C. Zumsteg, Kenneth G. Sharp, Weiming Qiu, “Materials Design and Development of Fluoropolymers for Use as Pellicles in 157nm Photolithography”, Optical Microlithography XIV, SPIE Vol. 4346, (2001).
bullet Michael K. Crawford, Andrew E. Feiring, Jerald Feldman, Roger H. French, Viacheslav A. Petrov, Frank L. Schadt III, Robert J. Smalley, Fredrick C. Zumsteg, “157 nm Imaging Using Thick Single Layer Resists”, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVIII , SPIE Vol. 4345, (2001). 
bullet R. H. French, R. C. Wheland, D. J. Jones, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, F. C. Zumsteg, J. Feldman, A. E. Feiring, "Fluoropolymers for 157nm Lithography: Optical Properties from VUV Absorbance and Ellipsometry Measurements", Optical Microlithography XIII, SPIE Vol. 4000, Edited by C. J. Progler, (2000).
bullet M. K. Crawford, A. E. Feiring, J. Feldman, R. H. French, M. Periyasamy, F. L. Schadt III, R. J. Smalley, F. C. Zumsteg, R. R. Kunz, V. Rao, L. Liao, S. M. Holl, “New Materials for 157 nm Photoresists: Characterization and Properties”, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII, SPIE Vol. 3999, edited by F. M. Houlihan (2000).  

Phase Shift Photomasks

bullet J. R. Smith, R. H. French, G. Duscher, D. A. Bonnell, “Consequence of Composition/Property Variations at Multiple Length Scales to Macroscopic Properties of CrOCN Thin Films”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 84, 12, 2873-81, (2001). 
bullet J. R. Smith, P. Graat, D. A. Bonnell, R. H. French, “Relation between Local Composition, Chemical Environment and Phase Shift Behavior in Cr-Based Oxycarbonitride Thin Films”, MRS Proceedings, January 2001.
bullet P. F. Carcia, G. Hughes, R. H. French, C. Torardi, G. Reynolds, L. Dieu, “Thin Films for Phase-shift Masks”, Vacuum and Thin Film, IHS Publishing Group, 14-21, September (1999). 
bullet G. A. M. Reynolds, R. H. French, P. F. Carcia, C. C. Torardi, G. Hughes, D. J. Jones, M. F. Lemon, M. Reilly, L. Wilson, C. R. Miao "TiSi-nitride attenuating phase-shift photomask for 193 nm lithography", 18th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, SPIE Vol. 3546, Edited by B. J. Grenon, F. E. Abboud, 514-23, (1998).
bullet P. F. Carcia, R. H. French, M. H. Reilly, M. F. Lemon, D. J. Jones, “Optical Superlattices --- A Strategy for Designing Phase-shift Masks for Photolithography at 248 nm and 193 nm: Application to AlN/CrN”, Applied Physics Letters, 70, 2371-3 (1997). 
 
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P. F. Carcia, R. H. French, K. Sharp, J. S. Meth, B. W. Smith, "Materials Screening for Attenuating Embedded Phase-Shift Photoblanks for DUV and 193 nm Photolithography", 16th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, SPIE Vol. 2884, Edited by G. V. Shelden, J. A. Reynolds, 255-63, (1996).

bullet B. Johs, R. H. French, F. D. Kalk, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, "Optical Analysis of Complex Multilayer Structures Using Multiple Data Types", Optical Interference Coatings, SPIE Vol. 2253, Edited by F. Abeles, 1098-1106, (1994).
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U. Alpay, R. H. French, F. Kalk,  “Photomask Blanks”,  U. S. Patent 5,459,002, Issued October 17, 1995. 8 claims. 

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U. Alpay, R. H. French, F. Kalk, “Photomask Blanks Comprising Transmissive Embedded Phase Shifter”,  U. S Patent 5,415,953, Issued May 16, 1995. 15 claims. 

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Comment: (c) 2010 Roger H. French , frenchrh@lrsm.upenn.edu
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